During the pandemic, many people worked and studied at home, all needing broadband internet to do so. Robust home internet is best achieved with fiber to the home (FTTH) using passive optical networks (PONs). How well do you understand FTTH using PONs?
Created by: Jim Hayes
1. FTTH became cost effective with the development of the ______.
B. VCSEL (vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser)
C. WDM (wavelength division multiplexing)
D. Fiber amplifier
2. A passive optical network uses ______ instead of electronic switches to connect multiple users to the head end over fiber.
A. Cable modems
B. Fiber taps
C. Optical splitters
E. Fusion splicing
3. Splitters “split” the downstream signal to connect many users and “combine” the signals upstream to connect all users to the same PON fiber port over one fiber.
4. To allow bi-directional transmission over only one fiber without interference or crosstalk, a PON uses different ______ upstream and downstream.
A. Bit rates
B. Power levels
5. In GPON, the most popular PON standard, G stands for “gigabit” because it transmits downstream at ______ Gbps and upstream at ______ Gbps and provides users with gigabit speeds for their internet connections.
A. 1, 1
B. 2, 2
C. 2.5, 1.25
D. 10, 10
6. Because the PON splitter sends the same downstream signal to all users, the signals to each user are encrypted to ensure privacy.
7. The latest standards for PONS ______.
A. Operate at 10 Gbps
B. Serve more users over larger distances
C. Can be operated simultaneously with GPON over the same cable plant
D. All of the above
8. In GPON, most systems have a maximum of ______ users
on each PON fiber port.
9. Each split factor of 2 in a splitter causes a loss of ______ dB, plus some excess loss caused by splitter inefficiency, making splitters the largest cause of loss in a PON network.
10. Besides FTTH, PONs can also be used for ______.
A. Corporate LANs (local area networks)
B. Wireless RANs (radio access networks to cell sites)
C. Secure networks for government facilities