Photovoltaic (PV) installations are becoming more common in commercial and residential buildings as PV-system efficiencies increase, installed costs decrease and cost of conventional utility-supplied electric power increases.
Energy codes establish the minimum requirements for the performance of new buildings. States have typically adopted either the ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 or the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) as their energy code for commercial buildings.
A utility-interactive photovoltaic (PV) system is defined in Section 690.2 of the National Electrical Code (NEC) (NFPA 70-2005) as a “photovoltaic system that operates in parallel with and may deliver power to an electrical production and distribution network.” NEC Article 690 covers Solar Photovol
An energy transition with the potential to revolutionize the country's infrastructure is gaining momentum. It is not brokered through expanded power grids or traditional fossil-based economics-it is powered through fuel cells. Fuel cell development is on the upswing.
The surface of the earth receives a tremendous amount of energy from the sun. It is estimated that the amount of solar energy that strikes the earth's surface daily is greater than the amount of energy used worldwide in 25 years.
Photovoltaic (PV) modules convert sunlight directly into electrical energy. Integrating PV into a building will impact its operation. Not only will the PV system produce electric energy to serve building loads but it can also reduce the building's electric demand and air-conditioning heat load.
The installation of photovoltaic (PV) equipment is governed by a number of industry codes and standards. Electrical contractors need to be aware of the codes and standards to ensure a safe and functional PV installation.
A group of students at St. Mary's Seminary and University in Baltimore were assigned to estimate the investment needed for solar photovoltaic (PV) technology to supply 20 percent of U.S. electricity by 2100.
The most focused on and visible part of a photovoltaic (PV) installation is the technology used. PV technology usually takes the form of rigid PV panels mounted on a building's roof, which represents another independent building system that needs to be installed.
There are a number of photovoltaic (PV) technologies available for converting sunlight into electrical energy. For building applications, technologies that are commercially available are predominately silicon-based and can be categorized as either crystalline silicon or thin film.
Photovoltaics (PV) are semiconductors that convert sunlight directly to direct-current (DC) electric power. Photovoltaic technology has been used for years in specific applications where conventional utility service is not readily available or practical.
In 1993, government researchers concluded that a group of 12 states in the midsection of the country have enough wind energy resources to generate nearly four times the amount of electricity consumed nationwide in 1990.
Distributed generation (DG) refers to the practice of locating small-scale electric generating units at or near the load served. With distributed generation, individual buildings or complexes can have a local electric power supply that provides some or all of the facility's electric energy needs.
Outdoor solar lighting has a bright future With little fanfare, solar lighting systems are being installed on a growing number of projects, and lighting powered by sunlight has quietly evolved into a mature technology with widespread acceptance.
In the world of alternative power, “the next big thing” is really small—and you don’t want to miss it. People are racing to become part of a revolutionary craze that boasts the strong potential to change the way we live.
Photovoltaic (PV) modules convert sunlight into electrical energy that can be used to provide power for specific loads within a building in a standalone system or as a supplement to the building’s utility power supply in an integrated system.