Integrated electrical and low-voltage systems of all types—inside and outside a building—encompass the range of work that electrical contractors do. The articles in this section highlight different types of work, from security, fire and life safety, to traditional electrical power and distribution, to lighting, cabling and more. 

In the past year, fiber optics underwent some important developments, some technical and some market-related. For those of you working in fiber optic network design and installation, the changes present opportunities and challenges.

This article is the first in a series that provides a step-by-step approach for performing arc flash calculations.
 Arc flash studies and software

I often give my power quality (PQ) 101 course to new engineers or salespeople. This introduction starts with the basics: an overview of PQ phenomena based on IEEE 1159 Table 4.2 followed by Ohm’s and Kirchhoff’s laws and how they apply to power quality.

We strive to protect building occupants, including our employees. Many years ago, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) formed to codify regulations in the area of employee protection.

More on Systems

Is FTTD Just Another False Alarm?

Well, we’ve heard it all before—fiber to the desktop (FTTD) is on its way to becoming the power source of choice. While unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cabling has been dominant, there is reason to think fiber will be a true competitor soon.

Ensuring Standards-Compliant Structured Wiring

With the convergence of voice/data/video (VDV) applications within both the commercial and residential ectors, electrical contractors are now faced with becoming information technology professionals in addition to being electricians.

Wireless LANs: Mobility at Ethernet Speed

IEEE 802.11 provides platform for new applications When the concept of the wireless local area network (LAN) was introduced more than 20 years ago, numerous companies tried to implement its applications through the use of spread spectrum, infrared and narrowband microwave technologies based on twist

Control Cables in Cable Trays

Cable trays can be a very convenient method of transporting large numbers of signaling, communications and control cables, as well as other cables, from one location in a facility to another. If cable trays are to be used, however, some specific requirements must be followed.

Communication Systems Offer Routine Emergency Services

A hostage situation can occur almost anywhere, anytime. But communication systems alert a building’s occupants to evacuate or take other appropriate action.

Dealing with Obsolete Components

It may seem unbelievable, but fiber optic links and networks have been used for over 20 years. The first telco networks were installed in the late 1970s and data links were already in use by 1980, when there were few personal computers (PCs) and computer networks.

Refrigerator Branch Circuits, Machine Tool Wiring, Foreign Piping and More

CODE CITATIONS Article 110 Requirements for Electrical Installations Article 210 Branch Circuits Article 250 Grounding Article 310 Conductors for General Wiring Article 404 Switches Article 408 Switchboards and Panelboards Article 670 Industrial Machinery Branch circuit for refrigerator in dwelling