Quality of light and end-user safety are driving forces behind a trend to retrofit or install whiter lighting. Popular lighting choices include pulse-start metal halide lamps, ceramic metal halide lamps, and electrode-less induction lighting.

This movement has been spurred both by concern for pedestrian safety and by the belief that “natural” white light is more inviting than yellow light. Municipal officials and developers alike want crisp, bright street illumination.

People tend to feel safer under bright white light, according to Ted Simpson, marketing manager of high-intensity discharge (HID), Philips Lighting. White light makes it easier to determine the true colors of cars, clothing, and other objects. To achieve those goals, specifiers are selecting lamps that, in some cases, have color rendering indexes (CRIs) as high as 90, he added. (Many HPS lamps have CRIs as low as 22.)

When the whiter light comes from of longer-lasting lamps—as with electrode-less induction (fluorescent) lamps—there is less maintenance, decreasing the chance of injury during lamp replacement.

Outdoor fixtures accepting vertically mounted lamps are increasingly popular. Vertical lamp orientation supports uniform illumination across large areas and can save energy consumption, while increasing visibility in low-light levels.

Vertically mounted lamps typically yield 10 percent more light than horizontally mounted lamps. And, in some instances, metal halide lamps in a vertical orientation may last 50 percent longer. (However, HPS lamps yield similar life in either orientation.)

In addition, installations using vertical lamp orientation with drop lens for pole lighting benefit from increased pole spacing and lower fixture counts.

Outfitted with contoured (drop) lenses, vertically mounted fixtures generally distribute more light at higher angles, increasing vertical surface illuminance and maximizing light distribution patterns.

When the lamp is distributed high up in the reflector, flat lenses can distribute less light near the horizontal plane, reducing glare and meeting lighting ordinances requiring full cutoff luminaries.

Lithonia Lighting recently introduced the KVF series area luminaire, which features vertical lamp orientation and accepts pulse-start metal halide lamps (available in six wattages ranging from 320 to 1,000) or HPS lamps (250, 400, and 1,000 watts). Mounting selections include side-mount arm or post top. Six distribution patterns are available with either a drop lens or flat lens and can be field-converted from one to the other.

The fixture accepts a low-profile external house side shield that, according to Lithonia Lighting, prevents spill light onto neighboring property without changing luminaire appearance. The low-profile design minimizes added wind loading on the pole. Directional distribution reflectors are field rotate-able and interchangeable. The aluminum-hinged doorframe contains stainless steel hardware. Optional tool-less access facilitates ease of entry and maintenance.

GE Lighting Systems, Inc., recently introduced the Criterion series of integrated modular lighting, consisting of 13 uniformly shaped architectural outdoor luminaires. The IP65 rated luminaires, available in full cut-off wall pack, area, or flood, and accepting lamps ranging from 70 to 1,000 watts, can work on 120, 208, 240, or 277 volts.

The series features plug-in parts and plug-in upgrades, many interchangeable among fixtures, streamlining inventory control. Each 100W and above fixture sports a platform with a universal footprint, the SnapDrive Power System, onto which components snap in and out without tools.

The electrical SnapDrive is available in three (multivolt) sizes and a 250-watt/400-watt multivolt/multiwatt version, and in a 480-volt (only) unit. The 400-watt SnapDrive accepts an optional Bi-level module that supports bi-level 400-watt/250-watt HPS or metal halide lighting from one fixture, facilitating energy savings if used with a timer that reduces wattage after business hours. A motion sensor could be used for energy-efficient security lighting. The Criterion luminaires accept metal halide, pulse-start metal halide, and HPS lamps, and are available with either vertically or horizontally mounted lamps.

The new acorn-style Acrylic Washington Postlite GV, by Holophane, featuring early-era styling, is lightweight and optically efficient. Well-suited for wherever pedestrian safety, security and comfort is essential, the fixtures use vertically mounted 70-175-watt metal halide, 35-150-watt HPS, 100-250-watt mercury, or 200-watt maximum incandescent lamps.

Available with asymmetric refractor Type III or Type IV or symmetric refractor, Type V, the fixture may be adorned with medallions and band or ribs, and a choice of seven finials. Options include a removable top, photo-control, protected starter, and fusing.

The TF4 Teardrop can deliver up to 400 watts HID. Suitable for streetscape, commercial, or recreational areas, the fixture, which uses a vertical lamp, features 360-degree neck rotation and can be locked into one orientation. For ease of maintenance, the fixture, which sports all-cast-aluminum construction with stainless steel hardware, features tool-less entry to both the lamp and ballast areas.

A built-in handle and quick connects on the ballast allow simple tool removal for ease of maintenance of the lamp socket and ballast. The acrylic frosted stippled globe has a silicone sponge gasket, providing a bug-tight seal. The fixtures are available in Type III or Type V optical packages.

McGraw-Edison Generation Series of decorative post tops melds traditional shapes with contemporary styling and features photometrics suitable for roadway illumination and uniformity. Well suited to historic districts, downtown streetscapes, walkways, city parks, outdoor retail applications, and school campuses, the fixtures accept 50-250 watt metal halide, mercury, or HPS lamps.

Three cage types (Classical, modern, and architectural); four top types (two spun aluminum hard mount, two acrylic glow); and three cast-aluminum finial types offer various looks. The refractive globe is 9-inch high-efficiency acrylic or optional polycarbonate design using a combination of refractive and reflective prisms for optional Type III or V distributions. Optional twist-lock assembly is available for tool-less access to optics. A wide handhold allows easy access when making terminal connections. The ballast assembly is mounted on a removable tray with quick disconnects.

RUUD Lighting Prismatic Area Lights (K Series) for vertical-mounting lamps are suitable for roadway and walkway illumination. The fixture comes in four mounting styles-post top, single-side pole, twin-side pole, and wall mount. The acrylic reflector/refractor, with tempered glass lens, is available in clear top or partial shroud units. The unit ships with an HID lamp, available in Uni-Form pulse-start metal halide (PSMH), metal halide, and HPS in a variety of wattages. An optional energy-saving ballast (277 volts) is available for the 150-watt PSMH lamp.

Progress Lighting Welbourne Collection includes wall and post lanterns featuring solid cast-aluminum construction, solid brass interior components, and powder-coat-textured black finish. The fixtures, which use an electronic high-power factor ballast and accept a 26-, 32-, or 42-watt quad compact fluorescent lamp’ feature a white chimney that reduces removable glare; and a removable top for re-lamping. The fixture’s clear glass panels have beveled edging for an old-fashioned look.

Philips Lighting Master Color HPS-Retro White ceramic metal halide lamps offer instant conversion to white light in place of yellow HPS lamps in post tops lighting fixtures where the existing lamp is already mounted vertically. The new metal halide lamps, which carry a CRI of 90 and have 85 percent lumen maintenance (approaching the performance expected from HPS lamps), operate on a standard HPS ballast without modification to the existing fixture or ballast.

Rated for open fixtures, the lamps are suitable as an upgrade for industrial applications where a high output of light and a high degree of color rendering are required, noted the company. Available in 250 and 400 wattages, the lamps provide up to 20,000 hours of rated life.

Immediate energy savings in outdoor lighting applications are achievable by replacing existing 400-watt metal halide lamps with 360-watt lamps that provide nearly the same lumen output and maintenance. Osram Sylvania Metalarc MSP360 SUPER SAVERs, which work in open fixtures without the need to replace the ballast, can save an installation 10 percent on a lighting bill, or nearly $80 per socket (based on $0.10/kWH) over its 20,000 hours of rated life. The company also introduced a 150-watt lamp as replacement for a standard 175-watt metal halide lamp.

Inductively coupled electrode-less fluorescent lamps offer extremely long life-up to 100,000 hours (which equals 25 years of operation based on an average of 4,000 hours per year or about 10 years of continuous operation) in products with a CRI as high as 85.

Induction lighting uses innovative technology to induce current into the lamp. Absent of any electrodes, which are the major life-limiting feature of traditional fluorescents, the life-limiting feature is, in essence, the ballast sold with the lamp, but even the ballast will last a long time, noted Pam Horner, manager of lighting education for Osram Sylvania.

Because induction lighting is fluorescent, it features automatic cold start (down to minus 40 degree Fahrenheit and Celsius) and instant start (avoiding any re-strike issues with HID products).

The long-lasting lamps are suitable for any difficult-to-access location, where burned-out lamps could decrease safety or perception of safety, or where need for low maintenance is a consideration. This could occur at an entrance to a tunnel or at a tollbooth on a bridge, where lamp change can clog traffic.

Osram Sylvania ICETRON inductively coupled electrode-less fluorescent system is available with two lamp types in three system configurations: a larger lamp operating at 150 watts and produces 12,000 lumens (80 lumens per watt), and a smaller lamp operating at either 100 or 150 watts and produces 8,000 or 11,000 lumens, respectively.

The QL electrodeless Induction Lighting family of lamps, from Philips Lighting, features lamps at 55, 85, and 165 wattages, with 3,500, 6,000, and 12,000 lumens, respectively. Incorporating a traditional incandescent bulb shape, it is well suited for insertion into most outdoor luminaires.

GE Lighting offers a new 1,500-watt Multi-Vapor metal halide lamp designed for the most common burning orientations used in sports lighting.

The MVR1500 SPORTSTAR lamp, designed to be used in sports arenas, stadiums, athletic fields, and fairgrounds, delivers 160,000 lumens at a 45-degree burning position with a lumen maintenance of 90 percent. For vertical burning installations, 178,000 lumens are available initially with the same 90 percent lumen maintenance value.

This clear lamp retrofits into existing 1,500-watt fixtures that use standard M48 metal halide ballasts. For new layouts, the lamp could brighten sports fields with fewer lamps and possibly fewer poles.

Engineered Products Co. Fluorescent Utility Lights, made from nonmetallic, non-corrosive, molded phenalic plastic and UL listed for wet locations, can withstand high temperatures, corrosive surroundings, and high-powered spray-downs. Accepting 9-, 13-, 22-, or 28-watt lamps, the Utility Lights are suitable for animal confinements, tunnels, airports, and bridges. The globe—glass or acrylic prismatic with internal ribbing—is UV stabilized to resist discoloration.

The compartmental venting system between the fixture and the junction box improves overall operating efficiency by allowing heat to dissipate from the ballast for longer bulb and fixture life.

LSI Greenlee Lighting LF Series of linear floods uses energy-efficient linear or U-Bent T5 or T8 fluorescent lighting for a variety of purposes, including uniform illumination of corporate signage and illumination of residential and corporate development entrances, outdoor menu boards, or directories from top to bottom.

They are also suitable for casting a uniform glow on entry walls or for indirect uplighting of canopies and overhangs. The fixtures arrive at the job site pre-wired and lamped, ready for mounting. Finishes are available in five colors, and the fixture can be hung using either a yoke mount or an arm mount.

Kichler Landscape Lighting Power Post 15276 provides one-step installation of line-voltage landscape lighting, eliminating the need for above-ground or below-ground electrical boxes. The impact-resistant PVC post, which has a 2 1/16 inch inside diameter, also has a built-in stabilizer that makes concrete unnecessary.

Access to fixture wiring is through a removable cap located at the top of the post. Kichler 15271 adjustable fluorescent uplight uses a 13-watt (maximum) compact fluorescent lamp to create silhouettes and shadows. With a bright anodized aluminum internal reflector and thermoplastic composite resin housing, the fixture is resistant to impact, weather, and the effects of UV. The unit comes with a clear polycarbonate shield for high impact resistance and moisture protection.

Controls

For residential and commercial applications, RAB Electric Manufacturing, Inc. Tuff Dome outdoor sensor can control up to 500 watts incandescent or 250 watts fluorescent, with up to three floodlights. The sensor, which can also mount remotely, features vandal proof, die cast metal case and hard, poke-proof lens.

The palm-sized unit, sporting a 180-degree detection pattern, fits round and rectangular boxes covering oversized openings. The sensor tilts up and down for proper aiming. For added energy savings, RAB offers a Hi/Lo Tuff Dome sensor capable of running lamps (180 degrees incandescent maximum) at 20 percent wattage from dusk to dawn and brightening to full power when the sensor activates. Both units feature manual override with auto reset at dawn.

Suitable for parking lots, walkways, and entryways, The Watt Stopper LightSaver Exterior Lighting Controller offers automatic “on/off” switching operation based on ambient daylight levels. Using a photocell to detect exterior ambient light levels, the controller switches the lighting on or off based on user-defined light levels.

To eliminate false triggers from intermittent changes in light levels, such as from passing clouds or lightning flashes, the controller uses a one-minute “on” delay. The LCE-211 model offers a fixed deadband control of 10 percent, preventing lighting from cycling during minute variations in light level. The LCE-201 model has a variable deadband control up to 70 percent that enables a user to switch lighting “off” and “on” in the morning and evening.

The human eye perceives morning light as brighter than comparable evening light, so the controller can be set to shut lighting off earlier in the morning, increasing energy savings, the company pointed out. The controllers use a fail-safe switching feature to ensure lights operate.

Novitas, Inc. Extreme Temperature Sensor Model 01-340 is designed specifically for automatic lighting control for applications such as an outdoor parking garage, where temperature and light fluctuations can negatively affect performance of other sensors. The passive infrared (PIR) motion sensor provides consistent coverage where extreme heat, cold, or humidity must be accommodated and where there are temperature fluctuations.

The unit, which has a built-in photocell to prevent the sensor from activating the lights when there is sufficient daylight, has a rugged, tamper-resistant enclosure. Compatible with high/low HID and fluorescent, the sensor can also interface with a building automation system.

The Leviton Decora Home Controls (DHC) Passive Infrared Transmitter functions like an occupancy sensor, detecting motion within its sensing range and switching lights “on” in response and “off” after a specified interval. It also sends signals to other loads on the DHC network to create an array of security lighting.

Leviton’s DHC Photocell Controller automatically senses approaching darkness and responds by sending commands up to four groups of DCH Receivers, to switch lights “on” at dusk and “off” at dawn. Leviton Commercial Grade Passive Infrared Outdoor Motion Detectors offer an adjustable time-delay shut-off feature and adjustable sensitivity to avoid false triggering.

The company’s 24-Hour Electronic Timer is suitable for commercial and residential outdoor lighting control, permitting separate “on/off” scheduling for half-hour periods of the day and manual control features.

Lutron’s HomeWorks Interactive, using Windows-based software, combines the functions of many standard switches and dimmers into a single keypad control and can control all of a home’s lighting, outdoors and indoors, as well as other sub-systems. The program supports multiple schedules, allowing for diverse timeclock events on weekdays, weekends, holidays, etc.

An optional telephone interface provides homeowner access and control of up to nine different functions or events from any touch-tone phone, on or off site. For example, a second-home owner can call into a vacation house to turn on driveway and walkway lighting in anticipation of later arrival.

The FELDMANS provide Web content for companies and write for magazines, trade associations, building product manufacturers, and other companies on a broad range of topics. They can be reached at wfeldman@att.net or (914) 238-6272.